Oct 21, 2022, 16:45 IST

Crops are plants grown by farmers. Agriculture plays a very crucial role in the Indian economy. It is the backbone of our country. 70% of India's population depends on agriculture for food and money. It is the main occupation in rural areas. Growing crops depends primarily on weather and soil conditions.

Biology articles Crop

Types of Crops

Following are the types of crops depending upon the season in which they are grown:

Kharif Crops

  • The crops grown in the monsoon season are called Kharif crops. For e.g., millet, cotton, and maize.
  • Such crops require a lots of water and hot weather for proper growth.
  • The seeds is sown at the starting of the monsoon season and is harvested at the end of the monsoon season.

Rabi Crops

  • The term “Rabi” means “spring” – a word derived from Arabic.
  • The crops grown in winter and harvested in the spring are known as Rabi crops.
  • Gram, mustard, and Wheat are some of the Rabi crops.
  • Various agricultural practices are carried out to produce new crop varieties.
  • Such crops require warm weather for the germination and maturation of the seeds. They also need a cold climate for their growth.

Zaid Crops

  • Such crops are grown between the Rabi and Kharif seasons, i.e., between March and June.
  • These crops mature early.
  • Pumpkin, Cucumber, bitter gourd, and watermelon are zaid crops.

Factors Affecting Crop Production

Following are the factors affecting the production of crops include:

Internal or Genetic Factors

Crop growth and production is determined by the genetic makeup. Breeders incorporate a maximum of desirable traits into crops to obtain a new hybrid variety. Desirable characters include:

  • High yielding ability
  • Early maturity
  • Quality of grains and straw
  • Tolerance to insect and diseases
  • Resistance to drought, flood, and salinity
  • The chemical composition of grains
  • Resistance to lodging

These characters are transmitted from one generation to another.

External or Environmental Factors

The external factors include-

  1. Climatic Factors

The climatic factors that affect crop production include-

  • Precipitation
  • Temperature
  • Atmospheric Humidity
  • Solar radiation
  • Wind Velocity
  • Atmospheric Gases
  1. Edaphic Factors

The growth of the plants always depends upon the type of soil on which they are grown. These is called edaphic factors and include the following:

  • Soil Organisms
  • Soil Temperature
  • Soil Air
  • Soil Moisture
  • Soil Reactions
  • Soil Mineral Matter
  • Soil Organic Matter
  1. Biotic Factors

Both the plants and animals are biotic factors that affect the crop production. Even the pests impact crop production, often with negative implications.

  1. Socio-economic Factors
  • The inclination of society towards cultivation.
  • Breeding varieties for increased yield or pest resistance by the human inventions.
  • The number of human resources are available for cultivation.
  • Appropriate choice of crops.

Crash Crop

A cash crop is the crop that is plant to be sold in the market to make a profit from the sale. Today's crops grown crops are cash crops grown for sale in national and international markets. Most cash crops grown in developing countries are sold to developed countries at a better price. Well-known cash crops include tea, cocoa, coffee, cotton, and sugar cane.

Food Crops

Crops cultivated to feed the human beings are known as food crops. Several food crops are grown in the country.

  • Rice: It is a staple food in most regions of the country. It is a Kharif crop that requires high temperature, abundant rainfall, and high humidity for proper growth. Areas with less rainfall use irrigation to grow rice.
  • Wheat: It is the most important cereal in the northern and northwestern part of the country. Wheat is a rabi crop that requires 50-75 cm of annual rainfall.
  • Millets: An important millets plant in the country include bajra, jowar and ragi. They are highly nutritious and are called coarse grains. It grows in areas where it rains all year round.
  • Maize: This Kharif crop is used as both food and the fodder. It grows well in the alluvial soil.
  • Pulses: India is the largest consumer and the producer of pulses in the world. Legumes can survive even in dry conditions. They are legumes and help improve soil fertility by fixing atmospheric nitrogen.

The human population depends on crops for food production. Therefore, crops should be grown using proper production techniques and agricultural tools.

Frequently Asked Question (FAQs)

Q1. What are the factors that affect crops?

Ans. The most important factors that influence crop yield are the availability of water, soil fertility, climate, and diseases or pests.

Q2. What are the five most important crops?

Ans. The five most important crops are maize, sweet potatoes, cassava, plantains, soybeans, rice, potatoes, sorghum, yams, and wheat.

Q3. What are the factors to consider while selecting a crop?

Ans. The major factors to be considered in crop selection include the following:

  • Prevailing farm conditions
  • Crop or varietal adaptability
  • Marketability and profitability
  • Resistance to pests and diseases
  • Available technology
  • Farming system
  • Security

Q4. Who grow crops?

Ans. Farmer

Q5. Which crop is grown the most?

Ans. Corn

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