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Introduction

Animal Nutrition of Class 11

Nutrition : It is procurement assimilation and utilization nutrient or food substances for harvesting energy, body building compounds for growth development as well as maintained and providing protection against diseases.

(A) Autotrophic : Holophytic nutrition. It is of two type

(1) Photosynthetic : eg. Plants and bacteria most common is oxygenic by splitting water eg. All plants and BGA

6CO2 + 2H2OAnimal Nutrition C6H12O6 + 6H2O + 6O2

In photosophic bract photosynthesis in Anorygentic.

6CO2 + 12H2S Animal Nutrition

(2) Chemosynthesis : Conversion of CO2 into oxygen compound with the help of energy obtained from exegetic chemical reach.

Animal Nutrition

Animal Nutrition

Animal Nutrition

eg. Nitorying super bacteria iron bacteria

(B) Heterotrophic : eq. All animals, fungi, several protests, no. of bacteria it if of following type.

(1) Holotrophic / Holozoic : small or large face of food are engulfed or infested through mouth. It is also called phototrophic mutration. On the basis of type of food. Holozoic nutrition is of following type

(1) Herbivorous

(2) Frugivorous : Feeds upon fruits eg. Parrot, Bats

(3) Carnivorous

(4) Insectivorous: Upon insects only eg. Spiny Anteater wall Lizard

(5) Omnivorous : Dog, Human Crow, Cockroach

(6) Scavenger : vulture

(7) Detrivorous: Eating small decomposed fragments of plats and animal.

(8) Coprophagous: Feeding on feccal matter eg. Pig

(9) Sanguinivorous: Feeding on blood eg. Leech, female Mosquito, Vampire bats

(10)Fluid Feeders : Animals feeds on plant fluid eg. Butterflies, male mosquito

(2) Saprotrophic / Osmotrophic : From organic matter present in enviourment as excretron, wastes and remains of organism made adsorbable by pouring enzyme and made it complex to simple. Absorbable. External digestron eg. Bacteria, fungi, Neottia (Angiosperm)  

(3) Mixotrophic: In this organism has the ability to switch over to alternate source g nutrition. Euglena from photosynthetic to saprotrophic in dark.

(4) Parasitic:

(i) Ecto-outside from host eg. Leech, limex, Lice mosquito (female)

(ii) Endo-inside the body – Trypanosoma (Fluid), Plasmodium (cell), Ancylostoma (tissue)  

(5) Symbiotic : eg. Trichonympha lives in the gut of termite. E.coli bacteria (B12 to human intestine) Ruminococus digestive bacteria.

Food : Any substance which serve to provide energy, body structure, maintenance repair, growth development, reproduction, resistance to disease.

Diet: Quantity of food and drink planned for meeting specific requirement eg. Vegetarian, low caloric, diabetic, high fiber diet.

Dietetics: Branch of science connected with study of various food stuffs their nutritional value for meeting requirement.

Type of nutrients :

(i) Macronutrients : Carbohydrate, lipids, proteins.

(ii) Micronutrients : 20 vitamins, 21 minerals

Calorific value : Amount of heat energy liberated when 1 gm of food undergoes complete combustions in bomb carlorimeter. Carbohydrate : 4.1 kcal / gm, Protein : 5.65 kcal / gm, Fats –9.45 kcal/g.

Physiological value : Amount of energy liberated in human body due to complete oxidation of 1 gm of food substance. It is less than calorific value.

Cargo : 4.0 kcal / gm, Protein : 4.0 kcal / gm, Fats 9.0 kcal / gm Carbo : 4.0 kcal /gm.

BMR : It is amount of energy required by a person for maintained of body function at rest. It is controlled by heredity. It is 1600 kcal per day average 1.1 kcal / hour / kg of body, Sitting

restfully : 1.5 kcal; writting 1.76 kcal, standing 2.0 kcal, walking 3.3 kcal/hr/kg body wt.

RMR : The energy required by a moderately active adult person of average weight and height is called RMR. It is 2200 kcal for women 2800 kcal for adult men.

AMR : Energy require by an adult performing strenous work / physical work. 3800-5000 kcal.

Balanced food : 60-70% carbohydrate + 15 – 25% fats + 10-15% Protein vitamin + Roughage

Steps of Holozoic nutritron :

(A) Ingestion : it is mechanism for catching holding and putting the food into mouth

(a) Microphagy : Feeding microscopic organism eg. Amoeba, Paramoecium.

(b) Macrophagy : Feeding on larger macroscopic piece.

(B) Digestion : it is conversion of complex nonabsorbable nutrient into simple absorbablic forms by means of digestron.

(i) Intracellular digestion : Digestron inside the cell endocylosis : digestron : Exocytosis

(ii) Extracellular Digestion : Outside the loning cells, usually in cavity. It occurs in all animals starting form coliraters

(C) Absorption: circulation (protists) cyclosis

(D) Assimilation

(E) Egestion

Different Types of Feeding Habit

S.No Feeding Habit Term Feeding On Example
1. Carnivorous Flesh of other animals Lion, Dog, Cat
2. Detritivorous Decomposing organic matter Earthworm
3. Herbivorous Plant material or Vegetation Rabbit, Cow, Horse
4. Insectivorous Insects Frog, Bat
5. Omnivores All types of food Cockroach, Human being
6. Coprophagous Faeces Pig, Rabbit
7. Sanguivorous Blood Sucking Leech, Mosquito, Bed bug, Lamprey
8. Frugivorous Fruit eaters Monkey, Parrot

➢ Epistolary: Written in the form of a series of letters.

➢ Gentlemanly Classes: People who claimed noble birth and high social position. They were supposed to set the standard for proper behaviour.

➢ Satire: A form of representation through writing, drawing, painting, etc., that provides a criticism of the society in a manner that is witty and clever.

➢ Serialized: A format in which the story is published in installments, each part in a new issue of a journal.

➢ Vernacular: The normal, spoken form of a language rather than the formal, literary form.

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