Defects of Heart

Circulatory System of Class 11

1. Blue Baby syndrome  (Cyanosis)

Due to persisting foramen ovalis in atrial septum even after birth, the impure blood from right auricle comes to left auricle and then into left ventricle from where it is supplied to the body increasing the bluishness of the body.

2. Heart Block (Cardiac Arrest)

If the S-A node becomes defective it cannot generate impulse properly and the heart beat becomes irregular or may stop. This is corrected by implanting artificial electronic pacemaker in the chest.

3. Murmuring Heart  :

Due to defects in valves instead of the normal lub-dup sound the murmuring sound appears as the symptom.

4. Mitral stenosis  :

Due to defect of  mitral valve passage of blood through A-V aperture, becomes improper.

5. Regurgitation    :

Due to improper closure  of A-V aperture, some blood during ventricular systole reenters the auricle.

Cardiac valves may be defective by birth or may get damaged due to Staphylococcal infection (rheumatic fever).  This can be repaired or replaced surgically.

6. Angina pectoris  :

Due to blockage or thickening of coronary vessel’s wall there is inadequate blood flow to heart muscle, associated with  pain in heart during exertion or emotional tension.

The blockage may be due to deposition of  cholesterol, smoking, diabetes or various other factors. Similar defect is also termed as coronary thrombosis when coronary vessels are blocked by blood clots.

7. Brown’s Heart Disease (Brown’s Atrophy)  :

Excess lipid (or lipofuschin) level in blood causes its deposition in coronary vessels which atrophy and symptoms are similar to that in angina pectoris.

8. Hooping heart    :

Sometimes improper rhythms in heart beat occur, this is generally the indication of heart attack.

9. Myocardial Infarction (Heart attack)  :

Insufficient blood supply to part of cardiac muscles may cause death of that part.  From damaged heart muscle cells certain enzymes leak hence their presence in plasma is very simple diagnostic feature for heart

attack, these enzymes are lactate dehydrogenase and transaminase.

10. Dextrocardia    

If  the heart is placed towards right side in the thoracic cavity as born defect.

11. Ectopia cordis  :

Sometimes heart becomes located outside the thoracic cavity as born defect.

12. Atherosclerosis  :

Irregular thickening of arterial walls and narrowing of their lumen due to deposition of cholesterol.

13. Arteriosclerosis  :

Thickening and loss of elasticity of arterial wall due to deposition of calcium.

14. Ischemia occurs due to loss of  blood supply to any part.  It generally causes fibrosis.  But, brain and retina of eye cannot withstand ever for a minute.

15. Oedema is the swelling in tissue by accumulation of fluid; could be caused by increased capillary pressure or increased permeability of  capillaries wall or decreased rate of return of lymph due to higher pressure in veins.

16. Cardiomegaly is heart enlargement. Hematoma is localised collection of usually clotted blood in a tissue / organ due to injury and rupturing of blood vessel.

17. Septicemia is blood poisoning

18. Sludging may occur in certain diseases or after severe trauma (eg burns). In sludging the erythrocytes in the circulating blood become permanently clumped together in the form of small irregular masses that

may plug or obstruct the small blood vessel of the body.

19. Artificial pacemaker is implanted subcutaneously in the upper thoracic region having a connection with heart. In patients having symptoms of ventricular escape (Stokes-Adams syndrome in which atrial

impulse suddenly fails to be transmitted to ventricles, artificial pacemaker is connected to right ventricle for controlling its rhythm.

20. Artificial pacemaker consists of a pulse generator containing lithium halide cell to produce electrical impulse, lead in the form of a wire and an electrode.

21. Cerebro Vascular Accident (CVA). Sometimes it is referred to as a stroke, which is the sudden interruption of blood flow to a portion of the brain because of block or rupture of a cerebral blood vessel. Thus

the brain cells do not get oxygen and glucose. This can cause paralysis, loss of speech, etc.

22. Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD). The patient may have an acute rheumatic fever, joint pains and infection of throat. Rheumatic fever may cause permanent damage to one or more valves (mitral or aortic

semilunar valves), pericarditis and myocarditis. Its causative factor is Streptococcus bacteria. Coxsackie B virus has been suggested as a conditioning agent.  

23. Ebstein’s Disease. It is a congenital downward displacement of the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle.

24. Haemolysis. It is destruction of red blood corpuscles with release of haemoglobin into plasma. It results in jaundice.

25. Haemorrhage. Haemorrhage is excessive loss of blood. The loss of blood decreases both the arterial and venous pressure.

26. Cardiac arrest. Complete stoppage of the heart beat (sudden and complete loss of cardiac-function).

27. Coronary Angiography. When the contrast medium dye is injected in coronary arteries ( arteries of heart) and pictures are taken, it is known as coronary angiography.

28. Clearing a blockade in the coronary artery by balloon surgery is called coronary angioplasty. In arborisation heart block, the defect lies in the Purkinje’s fibres.

29. Fibrillation is a condition in which the heart muscle is contracting very rapidly but in an uncoordinated fashion. There are atrial and ventricular fibrillation. Ventricular fibrillation is immediately life

threating unless it can be stopped by defibrillation. A machine called a defibrillator is used to do this.

30. First aid and management of cardiac arrest is called cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). (Resuscitate - to revive).

31. A thrombosis in the blood vessels in the brain is called a stroke.

32. Mesocardia. Location of heart in the middle of the chest.

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