what is Cropping Patterns

Crop production and managements of Class 8

MIXED CROPPING:

It is the practice of growing two or more types of crops simultaneously on the same piece of land. Different crops to be grown are selected in such a way that products & wastes from one crop can stimulate the growth of other crop.

CROP COMBINATIONS USED IN MIXED CROPPING:

  • Growing wheat crop + gram
  • Growing groundnut + sunflower
  • Growing turmeric + groundnut

Selection of Crops For Mixed Cropping:

Following criteria are taken into account:

  • Duration of crops
  • Growth habit
  • Root pattern
  • Water needs
  • Nutrient demands

INTERCROPPING:

Improved version of traditional mixed cropping in which two or more crops are grown simultaneously in the same field but in a definite row pattern is called intercropping.

Criteria to accomplish Intercropping:

  • Spatial arrangement
  • Plant density
  • Maturity dates of crops
  • Plant architecture

Methods of Intercropping:

  • Row intercropping: In this intercropping all crop combinations of mixed cropping are used in definite row pattern 1: 1, 1: 2 or 1: 3.
  • Strip intercropping: Growing two or more crops simultaneously in strips, wide enough to permit separate crop production using machines.

CROP ROTATION:

Practice of growing different crops on a same piece of land in a preplanned succession. Depending upon the duration, crop rotation may be of three types:

Year rotation

Rice-Wheat, Maize - Mustard

Years rotation

Maize - Potato - Sugarcane - Peas

Years rotation

Maize - Mustard - Sugarcane - Methi - Rice – Wheat - Hing - Mustard,

Sugarcane - Berseem - Cotton - Oat - Sugarcane - Peas-Maize - Wheat.

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