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Casual Wards: These were the night shelters set up by the Poor Law authorities.
Fly shuttle: It is a mechanical device used for weaving, moved by means of ropes and pulleys. It places the horizontal threads (called the weft) into the vertical threads (called the warp).
Metropolis: A large, density populated city of a country or state, often the capital of the region.
Night refugees: Shelters where jobseekers would spend their night; these were put up by private individuals.
Orient: The countries to the east of the Mediterranean, usually referring to Asia. The term arises out of a western viewpoint that sees this region as premodern, traditional and mysterious.
Sepoy: Refers to an Indian soldier in the service of the British.
Urbanization: Development of a city or town.