The Living World of Class 11
Botanical gardens are collections of living plants maintained for reference. It is considered natural and economical reference system. There are over 525 large sized botanical gardens developed in the various parts of the world. The first modern botanical garden was established in 1544 at Pisa in Italy (Padua Botanical Garden) by Luca Ghini, a professor of botany. This garden does not exist today. A botanical garden exclusively growing trees and shrubs is called arboretum.
The most famous and the largest botanical garden is Royal Gardens, Kew (London), England. It is extended in 200 acres of land. It was founded in 1759 by William Aiton.
The largest botanical garden of India is Indian Botanical Garden, Howrah (Shibpur), Kolkata. It was established in 1787. Besides it, other main botanical gardens are:
- National Botanical Gardens, Lucknow.
- Lloyd Botanical Gardens, Darjeeling.
- Garden of the Indian Agriculture Institute, Dehradun, etc,
A botanical garden usually houses a library, laboratory, herbarium and museum. It frequently offers teaching and training facilities also.
In botanical gardens, one may find each plant in the garden with scientific name and family mentioned on the label.
International Association of Botanic Gardens was established in 1962. It has published the International Directory of Botanic Gardens (1983).