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Animal Diseases

About Animal Diseases 

Animals are used as ‘beasts of burden’ and for milk, meat, leather, fur etc. and also for game and amusement hence these are domesticated and improvement of their breeds for better yield is required.
These have been developed from wild ancestors by selective breeding.
Dog was the first to be domesticated used for hunting and later for tracing criminals, drug peddlers, prowlers, to lead the blinds and to draw sledges of the Eskimoes, it symbolizes topmost companion of man
Using wild dogs, wolf and jackal wonderful varieties of dogs have been produced.
Cats are the closest pet but useful only for control of rats.
Major domestic animals are categorised as : Livestock, Poultry, Fishery and Insects of economic importance.


Animal Diseases Breeds of Indian Zebu Cattle (Cow)


  Milch Breeds                       Distribution
1.Gir                                  :Gujarat, Rajasthan
2.Sahiwal (Montgomary)   :Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh
3.Red Sindhi                     :Karachi, Baluchistan
4.Deoni                             :Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Travancore
Draught Breeds
1.Malvi                              :Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh (Malva)
2.Nagori                           :Rajasthan (Nagor/Jodhpur)
3.Hallikar                          :Karnataka
4.Kangayam                     :Tamil Nadu and other parts of South India
5.Bachaur                         :Bihar (Sitamarhi)
General Utility Breeds
1.Haryana                        :Haryana, Punjab
2.Ongole (Nellore)           :Andhra Pradesh
3.Tharparkar (Pakistan)  :Gujarat, Jodhpur, Kutch, Jaisalmer
Exotic breeds
Holstein; Friesian, Brown Swiss, Jersey (USA), Red Dane, Ayrshire
Indian Cross breeds developed at National Dairy Research Institute
Karanswiss — NDRI, Karnal; Sunandini — NDRI, Kerala
       
    Breeds of Indian Buffaloes
1.Murrah                         :Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh
2.Bhadawari                    :Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh
3.Jaffrabadi                     :Gujarat
4.Surti                             :Rajasthan, Gujarat
5.Mehsana                      :Gujarat
6.Nagpuri or Ellichipuri    :Central and South India
7.Nili Ravi                        :Punjab, Haryana

Mithun

  • A cattle-like animal of North-Eastern Himalya at an altitude of 700 to 1700 mtr.
  • Useful for meat, hide and transportation.

Yak

  • Similar to mithun, found in Western Himalaya (Tibet, Ladakh, Lahaul Spiti and Garhwal)
  • Used for meat, wool, hide, tilling land and transportation.

Cattle Management and Feeding


India has largest number (227 million) of cattle in the world and stands 2nd in milk production. Its management includes feed, keep up (medical care) and breeding.
Feeding

Except some managed farm most livestock feed by grazing on open land. Prepared feeds are of various categories:

Roughages : fodder, silage, hay and straw with high fibre content.

Concenterates : preparations of cereals, millets, forage crops with high leaf proteins, oil seeds, cakes, animal byproducts have high nutrient value.

Minerals and vitamins are also added for high yielders.

Ratio of these differs for calf, adult and the milking mothers etc.

Goat (POOR MAN’S COW)
Table : Some Breeds of Indian Goat
       Breed        Distribution

1.Gaddi           :     Himachal Pradesh
2.Pashmina     :     Kashmir, Tiber, H.P.
3.Jamnapari    :    U.P., M.P.
4.Beetal          :    Punjab
5.Marwari        :    Rajasthan
6.Berari           :    Maharashtra
7.Malabaari     :    Kerala
8.Bengal          :    Bihar, Orissa, Bengal

SHEEP
Indian Breeds of Sheep
     Breed                           Distribution                           Use
1.Lohi                                 Punjab,Rajasthan              Wool and milk
2.Rampur-Bushair              U.P., Himachal Pradesh      Wool cloth
3.Nali    Haryana,                Punjab, Rajasthan             Carpet wool
4.Bhakrawal                       Jammu and Kashmir           Wool for shawls, under-coat
5.Deccani                           Karnataka                          Mutton
6.Nellore                             Maharashtra                      Mutton
7.Marwari                           Gujarat                               Coarse wool
8.Patanwadi                       Gujarat                                Wool for army hosiery
Exotic breeds
Dorset     :    England
Horn        :    England
Merino     :    of Spanish origin (now raised)
Pig

Table : Breeds of pigs
Demosticated Idigenous Pigs        Distribution

1.Desi                                      :    Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Punjab, Madhya Pradesh

 2.Ghori                                    :    Manipur, Assam, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh
Exotic Pigs
1.Berkshire                       :UK
2.Large white Yorkshire    :UK
3.Landrace                       :Switzerland and Denmark

Horse (EQUUS EQUUS)
            Table : Breeds of Horses
        Name               Regions
(i)Kathiawari     :    Rajasthan and Gujarat
(ii)Marwari        :    Rajasthan
(iii)Bhutia         :    Punjab and Bhutan
(iv)Manipuri     :    North-eastern mountains
(v)Spiti            :    Himachal Pradesh
(vi)Zanskari     :    Ladakh

  • Veternary Medicine. Branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, treatment and cure of animal diseases.
  • Stock Farm. A farm specialized in breeding of livestock.
  • Hare-lip. Upper lip with a cleft as in sheep.
  • Goat-herd. One who tends goats.
  • Sheep-herder or Shepherd. A keeper or herder of sheep.
  • Goatee. A man’s beard trimmed short to a pointed end beneath the chin.
  • Apilogy. Study of bees (L. apis = bee, G. Logos = study).
  • Sericulture. Production of silk by rearing silkworms (larvae) of silkmoth (L. sericum silk, culture = raising, culture).
  • Feline. About cats (L. felis = cat).
  • Livestock. Domestic animals raised or dealt in for use of profit.
  • Pathology. Medical science dealing with all aspects of disease (g. pathos = disease, logos = discourse).
  • Immunization. Process or procedure of making an animal/a person immune to a disease.
  • A healthy animal looks peaceful is alert in movement, has normal appetite and sleeps well.
  • A sick animal is restless, ceases rumination, has discharge from eyes, nostrils and mouth, and may have fever, cough and sneezing.
  • Cattle and buffaloes may suffer from anthrax, black quarter, foot and mouth disease, haemorrhagic septicaemia, mastitis, rinderpest, tuberculosis and tympanistis.
  • Sheep may have anthrax, black quarter and haemorrhagic septicaemia.
  • Goats may suffer from anthrax, foot and mouth disease and contagious pneumonia.
  • Pigs may suffer from swine fever, foot and mouth disease, swine plague, anthrax, tuberculosis and piglet influenza.
  • Equines may suffer from surra, rabies, kumree, and camel pox.
  • Poultry birds may have ranikhet, coccidiosis and tick fever.
  • Honeybees may suffer from nosema disease, dysentery, paralysis and acarne disease.
  • Silkworms suffer from pebrine.
  • “Prevention is better than cure” applies to domestic animals also.
  • Preventive measures include sanitary premises, isolation of sick animals, deep burial of the carcass of infected animals, proper nourishment, water, air and sunshine supply.

SMOKING.


Smoking of tobacco dried and cured leaves of plant ‘Nicotiana tobacum’ and N. rustica in the form of cigars, cigarettes, bides etc. is very toxic to the body. Smoke of tobacco contains about 300 compounds. The main compounds are nicotine, CO, HCN, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, certain other stimulating products etc. Nicotine in the blood stimulates the nervous system, relax the muscles, release adrenalin hormone and increase the rate of heart beats. In pregnant ladies growth of fetus decreases and loss of weight may takes place.
Diseases Caused by Smoking : Smoking causes the following diseases.

  1. Cancer : Benzpyrene present in tobacco smoke is carcinogenic. About 95% victims of lung cancer are due to smoking.
  2. Cardio-vascular Diseases : Tobacco smoking causes increase of adrenalin secretion which increases blood pressure, heart beat rate by constricting the arteries. High blood pressure increases the chances of heart diseases.
  3. Emphysema : Tobacco smoke may break down the walls of alveoli of the lungs, decreasing the surface area for gas exchange, causing emphysema.
  4. Coughing and Bronchitis : Tobacco smoking irritates the mucous membrane of the pharynx (throat) and bronchi causing coughing and bronchitis.
  5. Pulmonary Tuberculosis : Smoking can spread bacteria of pulmonary tuberculosis from infected person to healthy persons.
  6. Gastric and Duodenal Ulcers : Smoking increases the secretion of gastric juice containing HCl. Excess of HCl causes gastric and duodenal ulcers.
  7. Effect on Immune System : Smoking reduces immunity of the body.
  8. Decrease in Oxygen carrying Capacity : Carbon monoxide of tobacco smoke rapidly binds haemoglobin of RBC and causes co-poisoning which reduces oxygen carrying capacity of haemoglobin.

 

Alcoholism.


Regular consumption of alcohol either in low concentration (beer, wine, etc.) or in high concentration (brandy, whisky, rum, gin, Vodka, etc.) causes dependency on alcohol which is called alcoholism. The person who has become a habitual drinker is called an alcoholic.
Effects on Individual Health

 

  1. Effect on Nervous System :
  2. Effect on Heart :
  3. Effect on Stomach :
  4. Effect on Liver :
  5. Effect on Kidneys :
  6. Effect on immunity :
  7. Effect on level of sugar in blood :
  8. Effect on the Family :
  9. Effect on Society (Community) :

 

Drug Addiction.


Symptoms and Control
(a) Drugs : Drugs are normally used for the treatment of diseases. The prolonged use of drugs may lead to the dependence of the body on them. This is drug addiction. Some people without any medical advice, start taking drugs and soon become drug addicts. Certain drugs form habit, but some make the body completely dependent upon them.
(b) Addiction : Some persons are unable to bear tensions or think themselves unable to solve the problems of life or due to certain other curious factors start drinking, smoking and taking certain narcotic drugs and feel relief and peace. Gradually this becomes their habit and they are addicted to these things.
Thus addiction can be defined as a physical and mental dependence on any of the above mentioned factors and get temporary relief and feel pleasure.
(c) Drug Addiction : The compounds used for the cure of the diseases are known as drugs. Certain drugs of specific category are nerve stimulants and depressants. Some of the drugs function as sedative and others act as hallucinogens.



Major Groups of Psychotropic Drugs with Examples and Effects

 

Type of Drug

Examples

Effects

(1)Sedatives and tranquillisers (depressant)

Benozodiazephines (e.g., Valium Barbiturates)

Depress brain activity and produce feelings of calmness, relaxation, drowsiness and deep sleep (high doses).

(2)Opiate narcotics

Opium, Morphine, Heroin, Pethidine, Methadone

Suppresses brain function, relieves intense pain.

(3)Stimulants

Caffeine (very mild), Cocaine, Amphetamines

Stimulates the nervous system; makes a person more wakeful, increases alertness and activity, produces excitement.

(4)Hallucinogens

LSD, Mescalin, psilocybin, Bhang (Hashish), Ganja Charas, Marijuana

Alters thought, feelings and perceptions cause illusions.


Alcohol-Drugs Interaction

Combination

Effect

Alcohol + barbiturates

Dramatically increased depressant effect

Alcohol + antihistamines

Marked drowsiness

Alcohol + Valium

Rapid increase in sedative effect

Alcohol + Marijuana or Hashish

Decreased coordination, increased reaction time, impaired judgement

Alcohol + Aspirin

Increased risk of damage to gastric mucosa.

 

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