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They are multicellular eukaryotes.
Chlorophyll – absent.
Nutrition – Typically holozoic, or parasitic.
Reproduction – Generally Sexual. Lower forms have asexual reproduction.
Examples – Sponges, Cnidarians, Worms, Insects, Frogs, Lizards, Starfish, Snakes, Birds and mammals.
Protozoa and Metazoa.
Unicellular, microscopic animals. No tissues.
Phylum 1. Protozoa (First animals). Protozoans. About 50,000 species. Solitary or colonial. Cell organelles specialized. Single to many nuclei. Nutrition holozoic, holophytic or saprozoic. Free living, commensal, symbiotic or parasitic. Freshwater, marine or moist terrestrial.
Examples : Euglena, Trypanosoma, Amoeba, Paramecium, Monocystis, et
Sub -Kingdom I-protozoa
Examples : Euglena, Trypanosoma, Amoeba, Paramecium, Monocystis, etc.
Sub -Kingdom II-Metazoa
Multicellular animals. Cells arranged in layers or tissues. Metazoans are subdivided into three branches : Mesozoa, Parazoa and Eumetazoa. Their contrasting features are given in the following table :
Phylum : Protozoa
Important Classes of Phylum Protozoa
CLASS I – RHIZOPODA OR SARCODINA
Example :Amoeba (free living)
Entamoeba (Parasitic or commensal)
Four types of pseudopodia are :
Class II - Mastigophora or Flagellata
Euglena Connecting link between plants and animals.
Trypanosoma Parasitic, causing sleeping sickness
Leishmania Parasitic, causing kala-azar or visceral leishmaniasis or Dum-dum fever.
Giardia Parasitic, causing diarrhoea
Trichomonas Parasitic, causing vaginitis in human female
Trichonympha Symbiotic found in gut of termite helping in cellulose digestion
Noctiluca Free-living marine
Proterospongia Colonial with collar cells, a connecting link between Protozoa and Porifera.
Two types of flagellates are :
Phytomastigna with chloroplast, plant-like; e.g., Euglena, Chlamydomonas, etc.
Zoomastigna without chloroplast, animal-like; e.g., Trypanosoma, Leishmania, etc.
Class III Sporozoa
All parasites, no special locomotory organelles, no contractile vacuole (associated with parasitism) complex life history.
Plasmodium Causing malaria spread by female Anopheles
Monocystis Parasite in the seminal vesicle of earthworm
Eimeria Causing coccidiosis in rabbit and chicken
Babesia Causing haemoglobinuric fever in cattle
Class IV Ciliata
Locomotory organelles are cilia, nuclei two or more
Paramecium Free-living, slipper animalcule
Balantidium Causing balantidial dysentery in man
Opalina Rectal ciliate and endocommensal in frog
Nyctotherus Rectal ciliate and endocommensal in frog
Some representatives of phylum Protozoa