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Animal Kingdom

Classification And General Featues of animal Kingdom

They are multicellular eukaryotes.

Chlorophyll – absent.

Motile.

Nutrition – Typically holozoic, or parasitic.

Reproduction – Generally Sexual. Lower forms have asexual reproduction.

Examples – Sponges, Cnidarians, Worms, Insects, Frogs, Lizards, Starfish, Snakes, Birds and mammals.

 

Animal Kingdom is Divided into two sub kingdoms 

 

Protozoa and Metazoa.
SUB-KINGDOM I-PROTOZOA
Unicellular, microscopic animals. No tissues.
Phylum 1. Protozoa (First animals). Protozoans. About 50,000 species. Solitary or colonial. Cell organelles specialized. Single to many nuclei. Nutrition holozoic, holophytic or saprozoic. Free living, commensal, symbiotic or parasitic. Freshwater, marine or moist terrestrial.
Examples : Euglena, Trypanosoma, Amoeba, Paramecium, Monocystis, etanimals kingdom

Sub -Kingdom I-protozoa

  • Unicellular, microscopic animals. No tissues.
  • Phylum 1. Protozoa (First animals). Protozoans. About 50,000 species. Solitary or colonial. Cell organelles specialized. Single to many nuclei. Nutrition holozoic, holophytic or saprozoic. Free living, commensal, symbiotic or parasitic. Freshwater, marine or moist terrestrial.

Examples : Euglena, Trypanosoma, Amoeba, Paramecium, Monocystis, etc.
Sub -Kingdom II-Metazoa
Multicellular animals. Cells arranged in layers or tissues. Metazoans are subdivided into three branches : Mesozoa, Parazoa and Eumetazoa. Their contrasting features are given in the following table :

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Phylum : Protozoa

  • Monactinal – Growth takes place in one direction only.
  • Goldfuss (1817) coined the term protozoa.
  • Number of species – about 50,000.
  • Study of protozoa – protozoology.

Characters

  • They are unicellular or acellular eukaryotes.
  • Exhibit protoplasmic level of organisation.
  • Body symmetrical or asymmetrical, free living or parasitic.
  • Mostly solitary, some colonial.
  • Nuclei – varies from one to several.
  • Nutrition – Holozoic, holophytic, saprozoic and saprophytic.
  • Respiration – By diffusion through body surface.
  • Excretion – By diffusion through body surface. Ammonotelic.
  • Osmoregulation – By contractile vacuole in fresh water forms.
  • Reproduction – Asexual by Binary fission, multiple fission or sporulation/Budding.
  1. Sexual reproduction by conjugation and fusion of male and female pronuclei.
  2. Phylum Protozoa is classified on the basis of locomotory organelles
    animals kingdom

Important Classes of Phylum Protozoa
CLASS I – RHIZOPODA OR SARCODINA

  • Locomotion by pseudopodia, body shape changeable.

Example :Amoeba (free living)
Entamoeba (Parasitic or commensal)
Four types of pseudopodia are :

  • Four types of pseudopodia are :
  • Lobopodia (Amoeba)
  • Filopodia (Euglypha)
  • Reticulopodia (Globigerina)
  • Axopodia (Actinophyrs sol)

Class II - Mastigophora or Flagellata

  • Locomotion by one or more thread-like flagella.

Example:
          Euglena             Connecting link between plants and animals.
         Trypanosoma      Parasitic, causing sleeping sickness
          Leishmania         Parasitic, causing kala-azar or visceral leishmaniasis or Dum-dum fever.
          Giardia               Parasitic, causing diarrhoea
          Trichomonas       Parasitic, causing vaginitis in human female
          Trichonympha    Symbiotic found in gut of termite helping in cellulose digestion
          Noctiluca            Free-living marine
          Proterospongia  Colonial with collar cells, a connecting link between Protozoa and Porifera.
Two types of flagellates are :
Phytomastigna    with chloroplast, plant-like; e.g., Euglena, Chlamydomonas, etc.
Zoomastigna without chloroplast, animal-like; e.g., Trypanosoma, Leishmania, etc.
Class III Sporozoa
All parasites, no special locomotory organelles, no contractile vacuole (associated with parasitism) complex life history.
 Example :    
        Plasmodium    Causing malaria spread by female Anopheles
        Monocystis     Parasite in the seminal vesicle of earthworm
        Eimeria          Causing coccidiosis in rabbit and chicken
        Babesia         Causing haemoglobinuric fever in cattle
Class IV Ciliata
Locomotory organelles are cilia, nuclei two or more
    Example:    
        Paramecium    Free-living, slipper animalcule
        Balantidium    Causing balantidial dysentery in man
        Opalina          Rectal ciliate and endocommensal in frog
        Nyctotherus    Rectal ciliate and endocommensal in frog

Some representatives of phylum Protozoa
Amoeba

  • Belongs to order Lobosa of class Sarcodina.
  • Species – Amoeba proteus,  A. radiosa, A. verrucosa, pelomyxa etc.
  • Amoeba proteus was discovered by Russel Von Rosenhoff in 1755.
  • It is fresh water form found in ponds, lakes, streams etc.
  • Locomotion by Pseudopodia (Lobopodia).
  • Nutrition – Holozoic (Omnivorous).
  • Osmoregulation by contractile vacuole.
  • Reproduction – Asexual by binary fission, multiple fission or sporulation.
     

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Entamoeba Histolytica

 

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Plasmodium


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