Manufacturing Industries of Class 10

Importance of Manufacturing :

Manufacturing sector is considered the backbone of development in general and economic development.

  • Manufacturing industries helps in modernising agriculture.
  • It reduce the heavy dependence of people on agriculture income by providing them jobs.
  • Helps in eradication of unemployment & poverty.
  • Helps in bringing down regional disparities.
  • Exports of manufactured goods expand trade & commerce.

iron and Steel Industry:

  •  Iron and steel industry is the basic industry steel is needed to manufacture a variety of engineering goods, construction material, defence, medical, telephonic, scientific equipment and variety of consumer goods.
  • Iron and steel industry is a heavy industry because all raw material as well as finished goods are heavy and bulky entailing heavy transportation costs. Iron ore, coking coal and lime stone are required in 4 : 2 : 1
  • India is an important iron and steel producing country in the world yet we lag behind because.
  • (a) High costs and limited availability of coking coal.
  • (b) Lower productivity of labour.
  • (c) Irregular supply of energy.
  • (d) Poor infrastructure.

Industrial Pollution and Environmental Degradation :

Industries contribute significantly to India’s economic growth and development but increase in pollution results in degradation of environment.


  • Air: caused by undesirable gases such as sulpher dioxide and carbon monoxide, air borne particles such as dust, sprays, mist & smoke.
  • Water Pollution: Caused by organic & inorganic industrial wastes such as release of lead, mercury pesticides, fertilizers, synthetic chemical, plastics, rubber, fly ash, phosphogypsum etc.
  • Thermal Pollution: Caused by nuclear power plants nuclear & weapon production cause cancers birth defects & miscarriages.
  • Noise Pollution: Cause hearing impairment, increased heart rate & blood pressure by making unwanted noise.

Control of Environment Degradation:

  • Minimising the use of water by reusing recycling.
  • Harvesting rainwater to meet water requirement.
  • Treatment of hot water and effluents before releasing in ponds & rivers, involves 3 steps.
  • Primary treatment by mechanical means.
  • Secondary treatment by biological process.
  • Tertiary treatment by biological chemical & physical processes.
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