Indian Nationalism

Nationalism In India of Class 10

Indian nationalism refers to the many underlying forces that molded the Indian independence movement, and strongly continue to influence the politics of India, as well as being the heart of many contrasting ideologies that have caused ethnic and religious conflict in Indian society. Indian nationalism often imbibes the consciousness of Indians that prior to 1947, India embodied the broader Indian subcontinent and influenced a part of Asia, known as Greater India.

FEELING OF NATIONALISM IN INDIA

  • Growth of nationalism in India is connected to anti colonial movement.
  • People began discovering their unity in the process of their struggle against colonialism
  • The sense of being oppressed under colonialism provided a shared bond that tied many different groups together.
  • Each class or group was affected by colonialism differently. So their notions of freedom were different.
  • The Congress under Mahatma Gandhi tried to forge these groups together within one movement.

THE FIRST WORLD WAR, KHILAFA AND NON-COOPERATION

The First World War created a new economic and political situation. It led to a huge increase in defense expenditure which was financed by war loans and increasing taxes: customs duties were raised and income tax introduced. Through the war years prices increased – doubling between 1913 and 1918 – leading to extreme hardship for the common people. Villages were called upon to supply soldiers, and the forced recruitment in rural areas caused widespread anger.

Then in 1918-19 and 1920-21, crops failed in many parts of India, resulting in acute shortages of food. This was accompanied by an influenza epidemic. According to the census of 1921, 12 to 13 million people perished as a result of famines and the epidemic. People hoped that their hardships would end after the war was over. But that did not happen.

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