Technology And Society

Units And Dimensions of Class 11

Physics is almost an integral part of upgradation of technology. Technology was also a branch of science where we study the application of principles of physics for practical purposes. Based on laws and principles of physics, technocrats along with scientists develop technically advanced equipment to help the society.

For example, from the principles of thermodynamics James Watt invented steam engine which was responsible for a big industrial revolution in England in the 18th century. Another recent example is invention of mobile phones which are creating revolution in wireless communication technology. Yet another important example is invention of micro−processors by using silicon chips which has replaced valve technology and brought the computers from the size of your study room to the size of your geometry box. These are few examples. There are many more areas where physics is involved in upgrading technology and thereby helping the society. The following table gives us a list of various branches of physics that helped the field of technology.

Technology

Scientific principle(s)

Steam engine

Laws of thermodynamics

Nuclear reactor

Nuclear fission

Radio and Television

Propagation of electromagnetic waves

Computers

Digital logic

Lasers: Light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation (population inversion)

Electron energy level transition

Production of ultra−high magnetic fields

Superconductivity

Rocket propulsion

Newton’s laws of motion

Electric generator

Faraday’s laws of electromagnetic induction

Hydroelectric power

Conversion of gravitational potential energy into electric energy

Aeroplane

Bernoulli’s principle in fluid dynamics

Particle accelerators

Motion of charged particles in electromagnetic fields

Air conditioners / Refrigerators

Laws of thermodynamics

Washing machines, centrifuge, etc.

Centrifugal force

Sonar

Reflection of ultrasonic waves

MRI(Magnetic resonance imaging)

Resonance phenomenon

The following table lists the involvement of various renowned physicists all across the world, who helped the society with their noble inventions.

Name

Major Contribution / Discovery

Country of origin

Isaac Newton

Universal law of gravitation: Laws of motion; reflecting telescope.

U. K.

Galileo Galilei

Law of inertia

Italy

Archimedes

Principle of buoyancy; principle of the lever

Greece

James Clerk Maxwell

Electromagnetic theory; light an electromagnetic wave

U. K.

W. K. Roentgen

X− rays

Germany

Marie Sklodowska Curie

Discovery of radium and polonium; Studies on natural radioactivity

Poland

Albert Einstein

Law of photo−electricity; Theory of relativity, Brownian Motion.

Germany

S. N. Bose

Quantum statistics (Bose Einstein statics)

India

James Chadwick

Neutron

U.K.

Niels Bohr

Quantum model of hydrogen atom

Denmark

Ernest Rutherford

Nuclear model of atom

New Zealand

C.V. Raman

Inelastic scattering of light by molecules

India

Christiaan Huygens

Wave theory of light

Holland

Michael Faraday

Laws of electromagnetic induction

U.K.

Edwin Hubble

Expanding universe

U.S.A.

Homi Jehangir Bhabha

Cascade process in cosmic radiation

India

Abdus Salam

Unification of weak and electromagnetic interactions

Pakistan

R. A. Millikan

Measurement of electronic charge

U.S.A

Ernest Orlando Lawrence

Cyclotron

U.S.A.

Wolfgang Pauli

Quantum Exclusion Principle

Austria

Louis victor de Broglie

Wave nature of matter

France

J.J. Thomson

Electron

U.K.

S. Chandrasekhar

Chandrasekhar limit, structure and evolution of stars

India

Lev Devidovich Landau

Theory of condensed matter; liquid helium

Russia

Heinrich Rudolf Hertz

Electromagnetic waves

Germany

Victor Francis Hess

Cosmic radiation

Austria

M. N. Saha

Thermal ionisation

India

G. N. Ramachandran

Triple helical structure of proteins

India

Thomas Alwa Edison

Electric bulb, Projector

US

Graham Bell

Telephone

US

Cavendish

Determination of ‘G’

England

Robert Boyle

Boyle’s law

England

So, to put it in a nut shell, science, technology and society are inseparable as they are deeply interwined.

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