Unit I: Physical World and Measurement

Physics - scope and excitement; nature of physical laws; Physics, technology and society.

Need for measurement: Units of measurement; systems of units; SI units, fundamental and derived units. Length, mass and time measurements; accuracy and precision of measuring instruments; errors in measurement; significant figures.

Dimensions of physical quantities, dimensional analysis and its applications.

Unit II: Kinematics

Frame of reference, Motion in a straight line: Position-time graph, speed and velocity.

Uniform and non-uniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocity. Uniformly accelerated motion, velocity time and position-time graphs.

Relations for uniformly accelerated motion (graphical treatment).

Scalar and vector quantities; Position and displacement vectors, equality of vectors, multiplication of vectors by a real number; addition and subtraction of vectors. Relative velocity. Unit vector; Resolution of a vector in a plane - rectangular components. Scalar and

Motion in a plane.Cases of uniform velocity and uniform acceleration-projectile motion.

Uniform circular motion.

Unit III: Laws of Motion

Intuitive concept of force. Inertia, Newton's first law of motion; momentum and Newton's second law of motion; impulse; Newton's third law of motion.

Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications.

Equilibrium of concurrent forces. Static and kinetic friction, laws of friction, lubrication.

Dynamics of uniform circular motion: Centripetal force, examples of circular motion ( vehicle on a level circular road, vehicle on banked road).

Unit IV: Work, Energy and Power

Work done by a constant force and a variable force; kinetic energy, work-energy theorem, power.

Notion of potential energy, potential energy of a spring, conservative forces: conservation of mechanical energy (kinetic and potential energies); non-conservative forces: motion in a vertical circle.

Unit V: Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body

Centre of mass of a two-particle system, momentum conservation and centre of mass

Centre of mass of a rigid body; centre of mass of a uniform rod.

Moment of a force, torque, angular momentum, laws of conservation of angular momentum and its applications.

Equilibrium of rigid bodies, rigid body rotation and equations of rotational motion, comparison of linear and rotational motions.

Moment of inertia, radius of gyration.Values of moments of inertia, for simple geometrical objects (no derivation). Statement of parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications.

Unit VI: Gravitation

Keplar's laws of planetary motion.The universal law of gravitation.

Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth.

Gravitational potential energy and gravitational potential. Escape velocity. Orbital velocity of a satellite. Geo-stationary satellites.

Unit VII: Properties of Bulk Matter

Elastic behaviour, Stress-strain relationship, Hooke's law, Young's modulus, bulk modulus, shear modulus of rigidity, Poisson's ratio; elastic energy.

Pressure due to a fluid column; Pascal's law and its applications. Effect of gravity on fluid

Viscosity, Stokes' law, terminal velocity, streamline and turbulent flow, critical velocity.Bernoulli's theorem and its applications.

Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact, excess of pressure across a curved surface, application of surface tension ideas to drops, bubbles and capillary rise.

Heat, temperature, thermal expansion; thermal expansion of solids, liquids and gases, anomalous expansion of water; specific heat capacity; Cp, Cv - calorimetry; change of state latent heat capacity.

Heat transfer-conduction, convection and radiation, thermal conductivity, Qualitative ideas of Blackbody radiation, Wein's displacement Law, Stefan's law, Green house effect.

Unit VIII: Thermodynamics

Thermal equilibrium and definition of temperature (zeroth law of thermodynamics).Heat, work and internal energy. First law of thermodynamics. Isothermal and adiabatic processes.

Second law of thermodynamics: reversible and irreversible processes. Heat engine and refrigerator.

Unit IX: Behaviour of Perfect Gases and Kinetic Theory of Gases

Equation of state of a perfect gas, work done in compressing a gas.

Kinetic theory of gases - assumptions, concept of pressure. Kinetic interpretation of temperature; rms speed of gas molecules; degrees of freedom, law of equi-partition of energy (statement only) and application to specific heat capacities of gases; concept of mean free path, Avogadro's number.

Unit X: Oscillations and Waves

Periodic motion - time period, frequency, displacement as a function of time. Periodic functions.

Simple harmonic motion (S.H.M) and its equation; phase; oscillations of a spring-restoring force and force constant; energy in S.H.M. Kinetic and potential energies; simple pendulum derivation of expression for its time period.

Free, forced and damped oscillations (qualitative ideas only), resonance.

Wave motion. Transverse and longitudinal waves, speed of wave motion. Displacement relation for a progressive wave. Principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics, Beats, Doppler



Unit I: Electrostatics

Electric Charges; Conservation of charge, Coulomb’s law-force between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution.

Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines, electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole, torque on a dipole in uniform electric fleld.

Electric flux, statement of Gauss’s theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside).

Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges; equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field.

Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarisation, capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor.

Van de Graaff generator.

Unit II: Current Electricity

Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity, mobility and their relation with electric current; Ohm’s law, electrical resistance, V-I characteristics (linear and non-linear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity. temperature dependence of resistance.

Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell,combination of cells in series and in parallel.

Kirchhoff’s laws and simple applications. Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge.

Potentiometer - principle and its applications to measure potential difference and for comparing emf of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell.

Unit III: Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism

Concept of magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment.

Biot - Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop.

Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire. Straight and toroidal solenoids, Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields.

Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field. Force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere. Torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer-its current sensitivity.

Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron. Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis. Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements. Para-, dia- and ferro - magnetic substances, with examples. Electromagnets and factors affecting their strengths. Permanent magnets.

Unit IV: Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents

Electromagnetic induction; Faraday’s laws, induced emf and current; Lenz’s Law, Self and mutual induction.

Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current/voltage; reactance and impedance; LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits, wattless current.

AC generator and transformer.

Unit V: Electromagnetic waves

Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (qualitative ideas only). Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves.

Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.

Unit VI: Optics

Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula. Refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications, optical fibres, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lensmaker’s formula. Magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact combination of a lens and a mirror.

Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism.

Scattering of light - blue colour of sky and reddish apprearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset.

Optical instruments: Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.

Wave optics: Wave front and Huygen's principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts. Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygen's principle. Interference Young's double slit experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light. Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum, microscopes and astronomical telescopes.

Polarisation, plane polarised light Brewster's law, uses of plane polarised light and Polaroids.

Unit VII: Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation

Dual nature of radiation. Photoelectric effect, Einstein’s photoelectric equation-particle nature of light.

Matter waves-wave nature of particles, de Broglie relation. Davisson-Germer experiment (experimental details should be omitted; only conclusion should be explained).

Unit VIII: Atoms & Nuclei

Alpha-particle scattering experiment; Rutherford’s model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen

Radioactivity alpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law. Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number; nuclear fission, nuclear fusion.

Unit IX: Electronic Devices

Energy bands in solids (Qualitative ideas only) conductors, insulator and semiconductors; semiconductor diode – I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier; I-V characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell, and Zener diode; Zener diode as a voltage regulator. Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor, transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration) and oscillator. Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR). Transistor as a switch.

Unit X: Communication Systems

Elements of a communication system (block diagram only); bandwidth of signals (speech, TV and digital data); bandwidth of transmission medium. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere, sky and space wave propagation. Need for modulation. Production and detection of an amplitude-modulated wave.



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Unit -1 Atomic Structure



Introduction  to Structure of Atom

Dalton’s atomic theory

Atomic models

Thomson model

Rutherford model

Bohr model

Dual behavior of Matter

Quantum  Mechanical Model

Concept of orbitals


uncertainty principle

Quantum numbers

Shapes of Atomic Orbitals

Shape of s, p and d orbitals

Node  and nodal surface

Shielding effect

Rules for Filling Electrons in Orbitals

 Aufbau principle

 Pauli’s exclusion principle

Hund’s rule Electronic  configuration of atoms

Stability of Completely Filled and half-filled Orbitals


Unit-2 Chemical Bonding

Types of Chemical

   Ionic bond


  Covalent bond

Polar covalent bond

Valence Bond Theory


VSEPR theory


Molecular  Orbital Theory

Magnetic characteristics

Bond order

Hydrogen  Bond

Intermolecular hydrogen bonding

Intramolecular hydrogen bonding

Unit-3 States of Matter:  Gases and Liquids

Intermolecular Forces

Types of intermolecular forces

 Nature of intermolecular forces

Laws Governing Gaseous State

 Boyle’s law

 Charles law


Avogadro law

Ideal Behaviour

Ideal gas equation

Dalton’s law of partial pressure

Kinetic theory of gases pressure

Deviation from Ideal Behaviour

Compressibility factor

Boyle’s Temperature

Liquefaction of Gases

Critical temperature,  critical pressure and critical volume

Liquid State

Vapour pressure


Surface tension

Unit-4 Thermodynamics

Thermodynamic Terms

Concepts of :

system, surrounding

types  of system

state of a system

 state function and path  function

extensive and intensive properties

reversible and irreversible process

Thermodynamic Quantities



First Law of Thermodynamics

Internal Energy


Heat capacity

Measurement of      U

Measurement of      H


 Enthalpy change  in a chemical  reaction

 Endothermic and

Exothermic reactions

 Standard enthalpy of reactions

 Enthalpy changes during phase transformations

Standard enthalpy of formation

Thermochemical equations

Hess's Law of Constant Heat Summation

 Enthalpies for different types  of reactions



Second law of Thermodynamics

 Gibb's energy change  for spontaneous and non-spontaneous processes

 Criteria for equilibrium

Third  Law of Thermodynamics


Unit-5 Chemical  Equilibrium

Introduction  to Equilibrium

Dynamic nature of equilibrium

Equilibrium in Physical Processes

Solid - liquid equilibrium

Liquid  - vapour equilibrium

Solid  vapour equilibrium

Equilibrium involving dissolution of solid and gases in liquids

Equilibrium in Chemical Processes

Dynamic nature of chemical equilibrium

law of chemical equilibrium

Equilibrium constant

Types of Chemical Equilibria

Homogenous Equilibria

 Heterogeneous Equilibria

Applications of Equilibrium Constant

Predicting the extent of a reaction

Predicting the direction of the reaction

Calculating Equilibrium Concentrations

Factors Affecting Equilibria

Le Chatelier’s principle

Ionic Equilibrium in Solution

 Strong  and weak electrolytes

Acids, bases and salts

Ionization of Acids and Bases

Ionic product of Water

pH scale

 Ionization constant of weak  acids and  bases

 Factors affecting acid strength

 Common ion effect

Buffer Solutions

 Buffer action and relevant examples

Solubility Equilibria of Sparingly

Soluble Salts

 Solubility  product

 Common ion effect of solubility of ionic salts

Unit -6  Solid State

Introduction  to Solid State


Characteristics of Solid State

Classification of Solids on the Basis of Order in the Arrangement

Crystalline and amorphous Solids

Crystal Lattices and Unit Cells

Primitive and Centred Unit Cells

Number of atoms  in per unit Cell in a cubic unit cell

Close Packing in solids

Packing  in Solids


Packing  Efficiency

Calculation of Density of unit cell

Imperfections in Solids

 Types of Point Defects

Stoichiometric and Non-Stoichiometric Defects

Metal Excess Defect

Metal Deficiency Defect

Impurity Defects

Electrical Properties

Conductors, semiconductors and insulators

Band theory of solids

 n  & p type semiconductors

Magnetic  Properties






Unit-7 Solutions

Introduction  to solutions




Types of Solutions

Gaseous Solutions

Liquid  Solutions

Solid solutions

Expressing  the Concentration  of

Solutions of Solids in Liquids

Various  quantities used  to express concentration of a solution

 Mole Fraction




 Solubility  of solid in liquid

 Solubility  of gas in liquid

Henry’s Law

Vapou r Pressure of Liquid Solutions

Solution  of two volatile liquids

 Solution  containing non-volatile solute

Raoult’s Law

Classification of Liquid-Liquid

Solutions on the basis of Raoult’s


 Ideal solutions

 Non Ideal solutions

Positive  deviation

Negative deviation

Colligative Properties

Relative lowering of vapour pressure

 Elevation of boiling point

 Depression of freezing point

Osmotic  pressure

 Determination of molecular masses  using  colligative properties

Abnormal Molecular Mass

van’t Hoff Factor – Numericals based on the above

Unit-8 Redox reactions and Electrochemistry

Oxidation and Reduction Reactions


Redox Reactions in Terms of Electron

Transfer Reactions

Mechanism of  redox reactions by electron  transfer process

Evolution of the electrochemical series.

Oxidation Number

Calculation of oxidation number

Types of Redox Reactions


Balancing  of Redox Reactions

Oxidation number method

Half reaction


Types of Electrochemical  Cells

Electrolytic  cells


Galvanic  cells



 Sign conventions at anode and cathode

 Laws of electrolysis

Conductance in Electrolytic Solutions

 Metallic and electrolytic conductance

Types of electrolytes



Molar conductivity

Variation of conductivity with concentration

Kohlrausch’s law

Galvanic Cells

 EMF of a cell

Standard electrode potential

Nernst equation and its application to chemical  cells

Relation  between Gibbs energy change and emf of a cell


Concept and mechanism of corrosion in relation to emf

Unit-9 s- Block & p-Block Elements and metallurgy

S-Block Elements Group 1 Elements

& Group 2 Elements

Electronic configuration

Physical  Properties

Chemical properties

Position of hydrogen in the periodic table

Diagonal relationship

Biological importance

Water and  hydrogen peroxide

Some Alkali metal compounds

Some Alkaline earth metal compounds

P-Block Elements Group 13, 14, 15,

16, 17 and 18 Elements

Electronic configuration

Occurrence Inert pair effect Reactivity

Some compounds of Group 13 to 18 elements

Unit-10 d and f - Block Elements and Coordination Compounds

d-Block elements

General properties of 3d elements.

Electronic configuration

Variable  valency concept Color

Magnetic properties

Catalytic properties


F-Block Elements

Electronic configuration

Oxidation states

Lanthanide contraction

Coordination Compounds

General composition

Coordination number

Types of ligands

Werner theory

IUPAC Nomenclature of Coordination


IUPAC rules

Valence Bond Theory as Applied to

Coordination Compounds

Valence bond theory

Crystal  field theory

Importance of Coordination


Analytical applications

Industrial applications

Biological applications

Unit-11 Surface Chemistry

Adsorption on a Surface



Factors affecting the adsorption of gases on solids


Homogenous and heterogeneous catalysis

Shape selective catalysis

Enzyme  catalysis


Distinction between true solution, colloid and suspension

Classification of colloids

Properties of colloids: Mechanical, Optical, Electrical

Hardy-Schulze rule

application of colloids

Unit-12 Chemical Kinetics

Rate of Chemical Reaction

Average rate of reaction

Instantaneous rate of reaction

Factors Affecting Rate of a Reaction

Concentration of reactants, temperature, catalyst, nature of reactants, pressure (gases), presence of light, surface  area of the reactants

 Rate Law and Specific Rate Constant

 Order And Molecularity

Integrated Rate Equations and Half life

Zero order reactions

First order reactions

Pseudo First order reaction

Temperature Dependence of Rate of




Arrhenius Equation

Collision Theory


Unit-13 Hydrocarbons, Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

Types of Hybridization of Carbon

Types of hybridization in carbon  compounds

Shapes  of organic molecules

2 D and 3D structural representation of organic compounds

Classification of Organic Compounds

based  on functional groups

based  on structure

IUPAC Nomenclature of Organic


Priority order of functional groups

Prefixes and suffixes for functional groups

Derivation of structural formula from a given IUPAC name  and vice-versa

Stereochemistry and Isomerism

Structural isomerism

Stereochemistry and stereoisomerism

Projection  formulae

Interconversion of projection formulas

Conformations and their relative stabilities (ethane and butane)

Geometrical isomerism (cis and trans)

Optical  isomerism

Absolute and relative nomenclature of optical  isomers

Homolytic and Heterolytic Fission  of a Covalent Bond



free radical

Basics of Organic Reaction

Electrophilic and nucleophilic reagents

Types of organic reactions

Electronic Displacements in a

Covalent Bond

inductive effect

electromeric effect




Stability  of aromatic compounds

Huckel’s rule

Alkanes (Upto 5 Carbon Atoms)

Methods of preparation (Reduction, Wurtz reaction, Kolbe's  electrolysis)

Physical  properties   

Chemical reactions (Halogenation,  Isomerisation, Oxidation, Aromatization, Combustion, Pyrolysis)

Alkenes (Upto 5 Carbon Atoms)

Methods of preparation (Partial reduction, dehydrohalogenati on, dehydration, dehalogenation)

Physical  properties

Chemical reactions (Addition of H2, X2,  Markovnikov’s and anti-Markovnikov’s rule)

 Addition of HX, and H2O, ozonolysis, oxidation and polymerization

Alkynes (Upto 5 Carbon Atoms)

Methods of preparation (Hydrolysis of calcium  carbide, dehydrohalo- genation)

Physical  properties

Chemical reactions (Addition of H2, X2, HX, and H2O and  polymerization)


Nomenclature, resonance and stability of benzene, orientation effect of substituents in benzene, preparation physical and chemical properties of benzene

Haloalkanes and haloarenes



Structure  haloalkanes and haloarenes



 Preparation and properties

Unit-14 Oxygen containing Organic compounds


Structure of alcohols, phenols and ethers


Preparation of Alcohols and Phenols

Preparation of alcohols  (hydration of alkenes, hydroboration- oxidation, reduction of carbonyl compounds, from Grignard's reagent)

Preparation of Phenols (from chlorobenzene, benzene and cumene)

Properties of Alcohols, Phenols  and


Physical  Properties of Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers

Chemical Properties of  Alcohols (with metals,  esterification, esterification, with HX, dehydration)

Chemical Properties of   Phenols (halogenation, nitration and sulphonation,       Kolbes Reimer - Tiemann, deoxygenation and oxidation)

Preparation of Ethers & chemical


Preparation from alcohols

Williamsons ether synthesis

Ether cleavage  by HX

halogenation, nitration and Friedel crafts reaction

Structure of Aldehydes, Ketones and

Carboxylic Acids


Preparation of Aldehydes and


From alcohols

 From alkenes

From alkynes

From aromatic hydrocarbons