Skeletal System

Movement and Locomotion of Class 11

Skeletal system is a system of external and internal, living or dead, hardened structures which form the supportive, protective and jointed framework of the body.


  • Body Form. Skeleton functions as framework of the body which provides the particular form and shape to the animals.
  • Support. Skeleton, being rigid framework, provides support to various body parts as well as bears weight of the body.
  • Attachment of Muscles. Skeleton provides attachment points to many muscles of the body.
  • Movements. Skeleton has joints which function as parts of levers alongwith muscles. These provide movements to different parts of the body as well as locomotion to the individual.
  • Protection. Parts of skeleton form protective covering around delicate parts of the body, e.g., skull over brain, rib cage over heart and lungs, vertebral column over spinal cord.
  • Respiratory System. A major part of respiratory tract is supported by cartilaginous rings. Expansion of rib cage helps in expansion of thorax which promotes inspiration. Shortening of rib cage similarly  promotes expiration.
  • Hearing. Ear ossicles present in middle ear are bones which take part in transmission and amplification of sound waves.
  • Sound Production. Sound box or larynx is formed of cartilages.
  • Storage of Fat. Cavities and canals of bones possess adipose tissue that stores fat.
  • Mineral Storage. Bone is a reserve of minerals, especially calcium and phosphorus. In case of deficiency, body can withdraw minerals from the bones.
  • Formation of Blood Cells (Haemopoiesis). Most of the blood cells are formed in the red marrow of bones.
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