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(a)Einstein’s photoelectric equation
where W is the photoelectric work function, v is the frequency of incident radiation, and vm is the maximum velocity of emitted electron.
If V is the stopping potential,
Where vm is the maximum speed of ejection.
v0 = W/h,
(c)Energy of photon
(a)Radius of the Bohr orbit
(b)Energy of electron in the nth orbit
(c)Velocity of electron
(e)Ionization energy of hydrogen atom
I.E = –13.6 eV
Energy of hydrogen atom in the ground state = –13.6 eV
(f)The values of constants
(g)Series limits (for Balmer etc, in hydrogen atomic spectra) are calculated for transitions from n = ∞ state.
λmin = hc/eV
Frequency (say Kα like x-ray)
(here a is constant)
b = 1 for Kα line
, where n = 1, 2 , 3 ,…………..
d is a lattice distance and θ is glancing angle
(a)Law of radioactive decay
, where λ is the decay constant, N0 the number of atoms at t = 0 and N, the number of atoms remaining after time t
Activity (unit is Becquerel)
Half life period,
E = mc2
1 atomic mass unit = 931 MeV (denoted as a.m.u or u)
(c)Nuclear binding energy