Inert Pair Effect

Chemical Bonding of Class 11


Heavier p-block and d-block elements show two oxidation states. One is equal to group number and second is group number minus two. For example Pb(5s25p2) shows two O.S, +II and +IV. Here +II is more stable than +IV which arises after loss of all four valence electrons. Reason - for more stability of +II 0.S. that 5s2 electrons are reluctant to participate in chemical bonding because bond energy released after the bond formation is less than that required to unpair these electrons (lead forms a weak covalent bond because of greater bond length)

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